An electric motor is a machine that generates mechanical energy using a magnetic field. Typically, it is made up of a rotor, bearings, shaft, a stator, and windings. Each of these parts has a distinct purpose, so the overall performance of an electric motor depends on its components.
The rotor, for example, has a set of windings that are coiled around a solid core. These windings are used to produce a magnetic field that rotates around the rotor. It also generates forces that turn the shaft.
In an industrial electric motor, the rotor is also supported by bearings. This allows for smooth rotational motion. Bearings help maintain a small air gap and are often the only moving parts in modern motors.
The stator may have a complex configuration. It may contain a core, an outer casing, and magnets. The outer casing is designed to reduce electromagnetic losses. Some motors are encapsulated to protect the windings from dust or moisture.
A terminal box, for example, supplies electricity to the motor. This may be a separate box from the motor, or part of a composite block. Terminals are usually located where the motor and battery are attached.
Commutators, or slip rings, help to ensure that the current is switched between the rotor and the battery. They are usually in the form of a ring-shaped metallic conductor.
Brushes can also be used to provide current to the rotor. Brushes are typically hearty. If they are not, dirt and debris can wear down the insulation protecting the windings.